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National Center for Campus Public Safety
 

A Study of the Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters in the United States Between 2000 and 2013

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Silver, J., Simons, A., and Craun, S., 2018

The FBI’s objective for this initiative was to examine specific behaviors that may precede an attack and which might be useful in identifying, assessing, and managing those who may be on a pathway to deadly violence. By articulating the concrete, observable pre-attack behaviors of many active shooters, the FBI hopes to make these warning signs more visible and easily identifiable. This information is intended to be used not only by law enforcement officials, mental health care practitioners, and threat assessment professionals, but also by parents, friends, teachers, employers, and anyone who suspects that a person is moving towards violence. In 2014, the FBI published A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013. In this first report, the FBI focused on the circumstances of the active shooting events and did not attempt to identify the motive driving the offender. This study is the natural second phase of that initiative, moving from an examination of the parameters of the shooting events to assessing the pre-attack behaviors of the shooters themselves.

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